There were four German offensives, codenamed Michael, Georgette, Gneisenau, and Blücher-Yorck. En fin de journée, les Allemands ont avancé d'une quinzaine de kilomètres. This process gave the German army an initial advantage in the attack, but meant that the best formations would suffer disproportionately heavy casualties, while the quality of the remaining formations declined as they were stripped of their best personnel to provide the storm troops. They also lost 1,300 artillery pieces and 200 tanks. L'apparition de 8 cas de choléra dans le 268 e régiment, partie de la 81e division de réserve du 41 e corps, amène le service médical à déclarer toute l'unité inapte au combat et renvoyer précipitamment les malades … Although Ludendorff had intended Blücher-Yorck to be a prelude to a decisive offensive (Hagen) to defeat the British forces further north, he made the error of reinforcing merely tactical success by moving reserves from Flanders to the Aisne, whereas Foch and Haig did not overcommit reserves to the Aisne. [26], The German attack took place on 27 May, between Soissons and Reims. Il est manifeste qu'après Ypres, l'Allemagne veut utiliser les forces libérées par la paix avec la Russie pour un effort suprême plus au sud. Over 1,100,000 shells were fired in five hours...[19]. Bruchmüller's tactics were made possible by the vast numbers of heavy guns—with correspondingly plentiful amounts of ammunition for them—which Germany possessed by 1918. Cinquante divisions allemandes avaient pu être redéployées sur le front occidental après la signature du traité de Brest-Litovsk avec la jeune Russie soviétique. Get the latest book reviews delivered bi-weekly. Access. Haig dut faire venir d'urgence des renforts du Royaume-Uni et le QG britannique dut retirer des divisions d'autres théâtres d'opérations. ... d'où l'ennemi a été chassé par la contre-offensive du général Cadorna. Observations on the German spring offensive, 1918'], This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 00:28. Sign Up . Signature des préliminaires de paix de Buftea entre la Roumanie et les puissances centrales, prélude à la paix de Bucarest, signée deux mois plus tard. They were being replaced in the front line by fresh British divisions, an operation that was planned to be completed on 9 April, the same day as the Germans attacked the sector. The Germans had realised that their only remaining chance of victory was to defeat the Allies before the United States could fully deploy its resources. The other offensives were subsidiary to Michael and were designed to divert Allied forces from the main offensive effort on the Somme. De fait, ils n'y arriveront pas. Comment la reprise de la guerre de mouvement mène-t-elle à la fin du conflit ? In many sectors, the Germans, deprived of any surprise as their fuel-starved air force had lost air superiority to the Allies, advanced no further than the French Forward Zone, and nowhere did they break the French Battle (Second) Zone.[32]. At Compiègne, a sudden French counter-attack on 11 June, by four divisions and 150 tanks (under General Charles Mangin) with no preliminary bombardment, caught the Germans by surprise and halted their advance. L'assaut allemand débute par un tir de barrage de 4 600 pièces d'artillerie, suivi d'une attaque de sept divisions sur un front de 15 km. C'est qu'il considère que c'est sur la Somme, où les Américains viennent renforcer les Franco-Anglais, que va se produire, croit-il, l'action décisive qui doit obliger l'état-major allemand à renoncer à conquérir le dernier morceau du territoire belge encore inviolé. After a day, the Germans had achieved only minor gains and had suffered heavy casualties. Ludendorff ended Georgette on 29 April. Le 24 Mars le cours est brusquement interrompu. The bombardment [hit] targets over an area of 150 square miles, the biggest barrage of the entire war. Ludendorff privately conceded that Germany could no longer win a war of attrition, yet he was not ready to give up the German gains in the West and East and was one of the main obstacles to the German government's attempts to reach a settlement with the Western Allies.[7]. Despite these apparent successes, they suffered heavy casualties in return for land that was of little strategic value and hard to defend. [13] Notwithstanding the effectiveness of the stormtroopers, the following German infantry often made attacks in large traditional waves and suffered heavy casualties.[14]. Cependant, le barrage ne permet pas d'empêcher les troupes allemandes d'avancer de 8 km le premier jour de leur attaque, connu sous le nom de code opération Gneisenau. By the end of the day, the few British divisions in reserve were hard-pressed to hold a line along the River Lys. [27] As a result, the Feuerwalze was very effective and the Allied front, with a few notable exceptions, collapsed. Certains des soldats inhumés ont été tués en 1914, d'autres au cours de la Bataille de la Somme, cependant, la grande majorité d'entre eux ont été tués au cours de la Bataille du Kaiser, offensive allemande de mars 1918, ou de l'Offensive des Cent-Jours menée par les Alliés à partir du 8 août 1918 [1]. The French commander-in-chief, General Pétain, sent reinforcements to the sector too slowly in the opinion of the British commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Haig, and the British government, though the historian Elizabeth Greenhalgh disputes this, arguing that Petain sent the six additional divisions quicker than had been arranged with Haig – in 2 days instead of 4 – and arranging for extra divisions several times – 12 divisions on 23 March and 13 on the 25/26 March – before requests came in from Haig. German success here could choke the British into defeat. Signature du traité de paix entre les puissances centrales et la Russie à Brest-Litovsk. Le 11 novembre 1918 à 6 heures du matin, les généraux allemands signent l'Armistice avec les Alliés. Aucun objectif clair et simple n'a été établi avant le début de l'offensive et une fois que les opérations étaient en cours, les cibles de ces attaques ont été en constante évolution en fonction de la situation sur le champ de bataille. For other uses, see, Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. Without French reinforcements, it was feared that the Germans could advance the remaining 15 mi (24 km) to the ports within a week. The German armies involved were—from north to south—the Seventeenth Army under Otto von Below, the Second Army under Georg von der Marwitz and the Eighteenth Army under Oskar von Hutier, with a Corps (Gruppe Gayl) from the Seventh Army supporting Hutier's attack. Elles attaquent la XVIIIe armée le 12, déciment trois divisions allemandes, obligent deux autres de réserve à s'engager, capturent 1000 prisonniers et 16 canons et forcent Ludendorff à mettre fin à l'opération le lendemain. En mars 1918, le commandement allemand lance une grande offensive à l’Ouest : c’est le retour de la guerre de mouvement. By Captain Ferlus. Les Allemands s'étaient rendu compte que leur seule chance de gagner la guerre était d'anéantir les Alliés avant que les États-Unis ne puissent déployer suffisamment de troupes en Europe pour vaincre l'Allemagne. 22 manuels numériques max avec tous les contenus des manuels Belin Éducation nouveaux programmes de lycée, organisés en base de données, et des milliers de ressources. Further operations such as Operation Georgette and Operation Mars were designed to strike further north to seize the remaining Allied ports in Belgium and France while diverting Allied forces from Michael. ", Kaulisch, Baldur. German troop losses were 239,000 men, many of them specialist shocktroops (Stoßtruppen) who were irreplaceable. German troops, led by elite Stormtroopers, advanced behind a creeping barrage. His lack of a coherent strategy to accompany the new tactics was expressed in a remark to one of his Army Group commanders, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, in which he stated, "We chop a hole. In theory, the front line was an "outpost zone" (later renamed the "forward zone"), lightly held by snipers, patrols and machine-gun posts only. Available online At the library. "The Tragic Pursuit of Total Victory. Because of this, Ludendorff continually exhausted his forces by attacking strongly entrenched British units. Stacks Request on-site access. The artillery bombardment began at 4.40am on March 21. Get the Magazine. ... mars 1918. [17] There were three phases: first, a brief bombardment on the enemy's command and communications (headquarters, telephone exchanges, etc. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines – such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. Cependant le commandement de la IIIe armée française, le général Humbert, averti par des déserteurs allemands a organisé sa défense en conséquence. However, these remained only secondary and weaker operations, subordinate to Michael. Durant l’hiver 1917-1918, le général Pétain dota l’Armée française des moyens qui lui assureraient la victoire. The Allies concentrated their main forces in the essential areas (the approaches to the Channel Ports and the rail junction of Amiens). Vagabonds Of The Sea – The Campaign Of A French Cruiser: Memoirs: Rene Milan: 1919: Download pdf. The process of relief in place was poorly organized by the British First Army's command, and the Portuguese 1st Division had been withdrawn to the rear on 6 April, leaving the Portuguese 2nd Division to defend the entire sector alone. Elles passeront à l'action le 30 mars, quand les Allemands menaceront la Marne. [31] An attack east of Rheims was thwarted by the French defence in depth. However, the German offensive had stalled because of logistical problems and exposed flanks. Nonetheless, the German advance (consisting of 21 divisions attacking over a 23 mi (37 km) front) along the Matz River was impressive, resulting in an advance of 9 miles (14 km) despite fierce French and American resistance. They were left with an extensive 7 mi (11 km) front, without natural obstacles which might benefit the defence. In this sector, the British defences in depth were complete and fully manned, some of the opening German bombardment hit only empty positions and there was no fog to give cover to the attacking stormtroopers. The ground on this sector of the front would dry out much sooner after the winter and spring rains and would therefore be easier to advance across. In August, they used this and improved tactics to launch a counteroffensive. The main reason for the choice was tactical expediency. En avril 1918, le danger d'une percée allemande était passé. ); then, destruction of their artillery; lastly an attack upon the enemy front-line infantry defences. Pour les Britanniques et les Français, c'est au mont Kemmel que la lutte est la plus rude. It was launched from the Hindenburg Line, in the vicinity of Saint-Quentin, France. Février 1918 - Mars 1918 - Avril 1918. Arras. While Georgette ground to a halt, a new attack on French positions was planned to draw forces further away from the Channel and allow renewed German progress in the north. French casualties from "Official Returns to the Chamber, March 29, 1922", Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918. Dans un wagon-restaurant, près de la gare de Rethondes dans l'Oise aménagé en salle de réunion, l'amiral Wemyss, le maréchal Foch et le général Maxime Weygand mettront fin à quatre ans de guerre. The strategic objective remained to split the British and the French and gain victory before American forces could make their presence felt on the battlefield. The main attack was made on the open and flat sector defended by the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps. On March 21, 1918, near the Somme River in France, the German army launches its first major offensive on the Western Front in two years. [35] Even worse, they lost most of their best-trained men: stormtrooper tactics had them leading the attacks. However, victory was not achieved and the German armies were severely depleted, exhausted and in exposed positions. The next day, the Germans widened their attack to the north, forcing the defenders of Armentières to withdraw before they were surrounded, and capturing most of the Messines Ridge. The March Offensive, 1918: Part I. John Terraine describes how, late in the First World War, the German Supreme Command launched a massive attack upon the Allied lines in France which very nearly succeeded. Toutes les offensives allemandes ont ainsi tourné court. In their turn, the Allies had developed defences in depth, reducing the proportion of troops in their front line and pulling reserves and supply dumps back beyond German artillery range. The stormtrooper units leading the advance carried supplies for only a few days, to avoid being overburdened, and relied on supplies delivered quickly from the rear. for the failure to formulate sound and clear strategy. 160 pp, Charles-Lavauzelle, 1938. One army would advance to threaten Paris and force the exhausted French to sign an armistice. [24] In terms of morale, the initial German jubilation at the successful opening of the offensive soon turned to disappointment, as it became clear that the attack had not achieved decisive results. Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références à l'aide d'appels de notes. Any capture of an important strategic objective, such as the Channel ports, or the vital railway junction of Amiens would have occurred more by chance than by design. L'objectif de Ludendorff est d'empêcher les Français d'envoyer des renforts aux Britanniques qui se trouvent dans le nord de la France, où il prévoit une nouvelle attaque. [29] German losses were again mainly from the difficult-to-replace assault divisions. Offensive allemande de mars 1918. Returning convalescents could supply 70,000–80,000/month but there were only 300,000 recruits available from the next annual class of eighteen-year-olds. The first advance, Operation Michael, began on March 21, 1918. The Americans were originally deployed in the quiet Saint-Mihiel sector in Lorraine where they had their first significant engagement in the defence of Seicheprey on 20 April. L’offensive du Printemps, également connue sous les noms de bataille du Kaiser[a] (en allemand : Kaiserschlacht) ou offensive de Ludendorff, est un terme utilisé pour faire référence aux séries d'attaques allemandes sur le front occidental du 21 mars au 18 juillet 1918 durant la Première Guerre mondiale. The right wing of Third Army became separated from the retreating Fifth Army, and also retreated to avoid being outflanked. [30] Ludendorff sought to extend Blücher-Yorck westward with Operation Gneisenau, intending to draw yet more Allied reserves south, widen the German salient and link with the German salient at Amiens. Ludendorff now postponed Hagen and launched the German Seventh, First and Third Armies in the Friedensturm (Peace Offensive) of 15 July, a renewed attempt to draw Allied reserves south from Flanders and to expand the salient created by Blücher–Yorck eastwards. The last funeral by the own troops took place in the time between 30.9. and 5.10.1918. The German Army had gained a temporary advantage in numbers as nearly 50 divisions had been freed by the Russian withdrawal from the war with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. [10][11], The German army had concentrated many of its best troops into stormtrooper units, trained in infiltration tactics to infiltrate and bypass enemy front line units, leaving these strong points to be "mopped-up" by follow-up troops. La possession de cette hauteur donnerait aux Allemands un avantage considérable. At Arras on 28 March, he launched a hastily prepared attack (Operation Mars) against the left wing of the British Third Army, to try to widen the breach in the Allied lines. Bombardment would always be brief so as to retain surprise. The stormtrooper tactic was to attack and disrupt enemy headquarters, artillery units and supply depots in the rear areas, as well as to occupy territory rapidly. The first advance, Operation Michael, began on March 21, 1918. [31] German manpower was exhausted. Astore, William J. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 13 décembre 2020 à 21:56. ['Strategy of defeat. Le général Ludendorff, chef d'état-major général adjoint allemand, lance sa troisième offensive sur le front occidental en 1918, par une attaque de diversion contre les Français qui tiennent le secteur du Chemin des Dames, sur l'Aisne. Counterattacks by British, French and Anzac forces slowed and stopped the German advance. John Terraine | Published in History Today Volume 18 Issue 3 March 1968. Bien que l'offensive ait un objectif limité, ses premiers succès persuadent le haut commandement allemand de poursuivre vers Paris, qui n'est qu'à 130 km. La première bataille entre chars de l'histoire eut lieue le 24 avril 1918, lors de la deuxième bataille de Villers-Bretonneux (bataille de la Lys, 24-27 avril 1918, offensive allemande … The territorial gains were in the form of salients which greatly increased the length of the line that would have to be defended when Allied reinforcements gave the Allies the initiative. Yet again, losses were much the same on each side: 137,000 Allied and 130,000 German casualties up to 6 June. It was, however, of little value; a Pyrrhic victory in terms of the casualties suffered by the crack troops, as the vital positions of Amiens and Arras remained in Allied hands. Voyage interminable. 2", p.963. Les alliés nomment Foch à la tête des armées franco-britanniques, le 26 mars. Once that was achieved, it was hoped that the French would seek armistice terms. The German objective was the penetration of the Western Frontat two of its weaker points. Offensive du Printemps (bataille du Kaiser), Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, 50° 00′ 10″ nord, 2° 39′ 10″ est, Bombardements de Paris et de sa banlieue durant la Première Guerre mondiale, Seconde bataille de la Marne, juillet 1918 - Mémorial de Dormans, Vie en Belgique durant la Première Guerre mondiale, Gouvernement général impérial allemand de Belgique, Comité national de secours et d’alimentation, Section artistique de l'armée belge en campagne, Résistance intérieure belge (1914-1918), Mémoire de la Première Guerre mondiale en Belgique, Entrée des États-Unis dans la Première Guerre mondiale, conférence de Kreuznach des 17 et 18 mai 1917, conférence de Hombourg du 13 février 1918, traité de Brest-Litovsk (Empires centraux-Ukraine), Portail des forces armées des États-Unis,, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant la France, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant l'Australie, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant la Nouvelle-Zélande, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant le Canada, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant le Royaume-Uni, Bataille de la Première Guerre mondiale impliquant les États-Unis, Conflit militaire géolocalisable sans coordonnées paramétrées, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:Première Guerre mondiale/Articles liés, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, Portail:Histoire militaire/Articles liés, Portail:Forces armées des États-Unis/Articles liés, Portail:Empire britannique/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence.

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